mY fmlY

mY fmlY

Sunday, October 17, 2010


Nak mumum kek yg sedap lg lazat, sehingga menjilat jari??
sila ke blog makuda yg pnuh dgn pelbagai contoh jenis kek seperti kek birthday, kek kahwin, kek tunang, dan mcm2 lg..
segala info ada juga disertakan di situ...nk tgk lebih details, pergila ke website di bwh niee..

Mak uda Decorative Cakes

16 Jalan Sejahtera 24 Taman Desa Skudai 81300 Skudai Johor Tel No: 0137777248 & 0197716565

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

MGT 3553 : search engine

What is search engine??
web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web and FTP servers. The search results are generally presented in a list of results and are often called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

How do web search engine work??
search engines work by storing information about many web pages, which they retrieve from the html itself.Search engines are the key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of the World Wide Web. Without sophisticated search engines, it would be virtually impossible to locate anything on the Web without knowing a specific URL. But do you know how search engines work? And do you know what makes some search engines more effective than others?

When people use the term search engine in relation to the Web, they are usually referring to the actual search forms that searches through databases of HTMLdocuments, initially gathered by a robot.
There are basically three types of search engines: Those that are powered by robots (called crawlers; ants or spiders) and those that are powered by human submissions; and those that are a hybrid of the two.
Crawler-based search engines are those that use automated software agents (called crawlers) that visit a Web site, read the information on the actual site, read the site's meta tags and also follow the links that the site connects to performing indexing on all linked Web sites as well. The crawler returns all that information back to a central depository, where the data is indexed. The crawler will periodically return to the sites to check for any information that has changed. The frequency with which this happens is determined by the administrators of the search engine.
Human-powered search engines rely on humans to submit information that is subsequently indexed and catalogued. Only information that is submitted is put into the index. In both cases, when you query a search engine to locate information, you're actually searching through the index that the search engine has created —you are not actually searching the Web. These indices are giant databases of information that is collected and stored and subsequently searched. This explains why sometimes a search on a commercial search engine, such as Yahoo! or Google, will return results that are, in fact, dead links. Since the search results are based on the index, if the index hasn't been updated since a Web page became invalid the search engine treats the page as still an active link even though it no longer is. It will remain that way until the index is updated.

So why will the same search on different search engines produce different results? Part of the answer to that question is because not all indices are going to be exactly the same. It depends on what the spiders find or what the humans submitted. But more important, not every search engine uses the same algorithm to search through the indices. The algorithm is what the search engines use to determine the relevance of the information in the index to what the user is searching for.
One of the elements that a search engine algorithm scans for is the frequency and location of keywords on a Web page. Those with higher frequency are typically considered more relevant. But search engine technology is becoming sophisticated in its attempt to discourage what is known as keyword stuffing, or spamdexing.
Another common element that algorithms analyze is the way that pages link to other pages in the Web. By analyzing how pages link to each other, an engine can both determine what a page is about (if the keywords of the linked pages are similar to the keywords on the original page) and whether that page is considered "important" and deserving of a boost in ranking. Just as the technology is becoming increasingly sophisticated to ignore keyword stuffing, it is also becoming more savvy to Web masters who build artificial links into their sites in order to build an artificial ranking.

MGT 3553

Information About Smoking

Do you smoke? Have you ever stopped to think about how smoking is affecting your body and your life? Most teens are aware that people who have smoked for awhile can get lung cancer and emphysema and eventually die, but many don't know about all of the bad things that smoking can to them right now. If you smoke, you owe it to yourself to find out about the effects of smoking on your life now. This guide provides some information about what smoking is doing to your body and some of the common reasons why people keep smoking even though they know it's bad for them. These are important things to think about to help you decide if you should continue smoking.

Why is cigarette smoking bad for me?
Everyone knows that smoking can cause cancer when you get older, but did you know that it also has bad effects on your body right now? A cigarette contains about 4000 chemicals, many of which are poisonous. Some of the worst ones are:
  • Nicotine: a deadly poison
  • Arsenic: used in rat poison
  • Methane: a component of rocket fuel
  • Ammonia: found in floor cleaner
  • Cadmium: used in batteries
  • Carbon Monoxide: part of car exhaust
  • Formaldehyde: used to preserve body tissue
  • Butane: lighter fluid
  • Hydrogen Cyanide: the poison used in gas chambers
Every time you inhale smoke from a cigarette, small amounts of these chemicals get into your blood through your lungs. They travel to all the parts of your body and cause harm.

What do all these chemicals do to my body?
As you might imagine, even small amounts of the poisonous chemicals in cigarettes can do bad things to your body. Here are some facts about what smoking cigarettes does to you:
  • Smoking makes you smell bad, gives you wrinkles, stains your teeth, and gives you bad breath.
  • Smokers get 3 times more cavities than non-smokers.
  • Smoking lowers your hormone levels.
  • When smokers catch a cold, they are more likely than non-smokers to have a cough that lasts a long time. They are also more likely than non-smokers to get bronchitis and pneumonia.
  • Teen smokers have smaller lungs and a weaker heart than teen non-smokers. They also get sick more often than teens who don't smoke.
What happens to my lungs when I smoke?
Every time you inhale smoke from a cigarette, you kill some of the air sacks in your lungs, called alveoli. These air sacks are where the oxygen that you breathe in is transferred into your blood. Alveoli don't grow back, so when you destroy them, you have permanently destroyed part of your lungs. This means that you won't do as well in activities where breathing is important, like sports, dancing, or singing.

Smoking paralyzes the cilia that line your lungs. Cilia are little hairlike structures that move back and forth to sweep particles out of your lungs. When you smoke, the cilia can't move and can't do their job. So dust, pollen, and other things that you inhale sit in your lungs and build up. Also, there are a lot of particles in smoke that get into your lungs. Since your cilia are paralyzed because of the smoke and can't clean them out, the particles sit in your lungs and form tar.

I know smoking is bad for me, but I really like it.
Many teens like the feeling that smoking gives them. This good feeling is from the nicotine in the cigarettes. Some teens think smoking will help them lose weight or stay thin. Many teens also feel like smoking gives them a sense of freedom and independence, and some smoke to feel more comfortable in social situations. If this sounds like you, you should stop and think about whether the things you like about smoking are really worth the risks.
  • Nicotine can make you feel good, but is feeling good (a feeling you can also get from healthy activities like playing sports) really worth all the bad things cigarettes do to you? If you smoke, you'll get sick more often. You also have the chance of getting lung cancer or emphysema, which will make you really sick for a long time before you die. If you are very sick, that good feeling from nicotine won't seem so important anymore.
  • Smoking doesn't really help people lose weight. If that were true, every smoker would be thin.
  • Smoking lowers your hormone levels.
Do you think that smoking is a sign that you can do what you want? That you are in control of your life?
Think about it this way: When you decide to start smoking, you are doing exactly what tobacco companies want you to do. They spend millions of dollars every year on advertising to try to get new people, especially teens, to smoke. Once they have you hooked, THEY are controlling YOU. You are forced to buy their products in order to support your addiction. Do you really want a big corporation controlling your life and telling you how to spend your money?

Why should I stop smoking if I'm not addicted?
Many people don't realize they are addicted to smoking. They think they can easily quit any time they want. But when they try, they forget it is extremely difficult. Unfortunately, it is very easy to get addicted. Cigarettes are just as addictive as cocaine or heroin. Even if you only smoke one or two cigarettes a day and even if you've never bought a pack of cigarettes yourself, you are at risk. Stressful situations or hanging out with friends who smoke might cause you to smoke more and become addicted. Try going a whole week without smoking at all. If you find this difficult, you are probably addicted to cigarettes.

If I quit smoking, won't I gain weight?
Many people are afraid to quit smoking because they think they will gain weight. In reality, many do gain a little but not enough to change how they look. People don't gain weight because they stop smoking. They gain weight because they start eating more. Often, people confuse the feeling of craving nicotine with hunger and eat to try to make this uncomfortable feeling go away. Smokers are also used to having something in their hands and in their mouth, so they may pick up food to replace holding a cigarette. To keep from gaining weight, try these things:
  • Drink sips of water instead of eating when you feel uncomfortable.
  • Eat carrot or celery sticks or other healthy, low calorie foods.
  • Exercise. This will also help take your mind off smoking and make you healthier.
  • Keep busy. You will be less likely to eat when you're not really hungry if you are doing other things.
I'll quit in a year or two when I'm ready.
A lot of people put off quitting smoking, thinking that they'll do it when the time is right. Only 5% of teens think they will still be smoking in 5 years. Actually, about 75% of them are still smoking more than five years later. If you smoke, it will never seem like the right time to quit and quitting will never be easy. The longer you smoke, the harder it will be to stop and the more damage you will do to your body. Here are some reasons to quit sooner rather than later:
  • Most teens would rather date a non-smoker.
  • You'll save money if you quit smoking. A pack of cigarettes costs about $5.00. Even if you only smoke a couple packs a week, you're spending about $40 per month and $480 per year on smoking. Think of all the other things you could use that money for.
  • You only have one pair of lungs. Any damage you do to them now will be with you for the rest of your life.
  • The longer you smoke, the better your chances are of dying from it. One out of 3 smokers die from smoking and many more become very sick. Think about your friends who smoke. 1/3 of them will die from smoking if none of you quit
       Smoking can have serious effects on your life. The longer you smoke, the more damage you do to your body and your health. Most people who begin smoking as teens say that they wish they had never started. The decision to start or continue smoking is all up to you and no one can make you stop, but you should think really hard about whether it is the best thing for your body and your life.

Monday, October 4, 2010

MGT 3553


    Understand relativism: some things are relative to some particular frame or reference, such as a language or a culture. Understand that people from other cultures might have entirely differently value systems than yours, but still not be explicitly wrong.

  2. 2
    Give proper personal space: Different cultures have different norms regarding what personal space is public (in which other humans can stand and converse with you) and private (reserved only for your dear ones). For example: Arabians do not share the concept of "personal space" that Americans have. It is considered offensive to step or lean away while talking to an Arab! Make sure you create proper distance between others when you talk. If you're unsure, you can always ask the others what they would like.

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    Do not belittle their religion: Remember, most people believe passionately in their religions, and what strikes you as unreal, may be his constant truth. If you have trouble dealing with it, you may wish to skirt the topic of religion altogether.

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    Learn to recognize physical cues: The gamut of Cultures contain a physical-gesture kaleidoscope. Often when people visit other countries, they get lost and miss subtle cultural cues, which leads them to misinterpret others. The use of irony, the implication of a laugh, are many times visible only through the squinting of the eyes, the shaking of the hand, which a cultural outsider might miss.

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    Know relationship differences: Many foreigners think American relationships are superficial (with a brief "Hi, Jim", and never a backward glance). Americans might think relationships in other cultures are too sentimental. So, know that if a person strikes you as too voluble or withdrawn, it may be considered normal in his culture.

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    Learn about their culture: Learn about the greetings, the goodbye rituals, the before-meal ceremonies, the food, the clothes. If some catch your fancy, you might even try them! This will help you understand people from other cultures.

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    Accept there may be lapses in communication: Even the best communicators fall short when jumping across the vast cultural chasm. Humor and non-defensiveness are the best bridges at such times.

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    Ask: There is no better tool for effective communication. If something strikes you as funny or inappropriate, if you feel the other person is neglecting you or is offended, simply ask him what you can do to remedy the problem. Grievances are like silence- broken when they are spoken out.